The bladder is an expandable, hollow organ in the pelvis that stores urine before it leaves the body during urination. This function makes the bladder an important part of the urinary tract.
The bladder, like other parts of the urinary tract, is lined with a layer of cells called the urothelium. This layer of cells is separated from the bladder wall muscles, called the muscularis propria, by a thin, fibrous band called the lamina propria.
Bladder cancer begins when healthy cells in the bladder lining change and grow out of control, forming a mass called a tumor.
A tumor can be cancerous or benign.
A cancerous tumor is malignant, meaning it can grow and spread to reach other parts of the body.
A benign tumor means the tumor can grow but will not spread.
There are three main types of bladder cancers:
The treatment of bladder cancer depends on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor; possible side effects; and the patient’s preferences and overall health.
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer(NMIBC)
non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the tumor is usually completely removed during a procedure called transurethral bladder tumor resection (TURBT).
The urologist may recommend additional treatments to reduce the risk of a recurrence, such as chemotherapy delivered through a catheter or immunotherapy.
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer
In MIBC treatment involves surgery to remove the entire bladder and nearby lymph nodes is usually recommended. This is called cystectomy.
The urologist will also create a new way to pass urine out of the body, called urinary diversion. Chemotherapy is also common. Talk with your urologist about all treatment alternative.
Biopsy: Removal of a tissue sample that is then examined under a microscope by pathologist to check for cancer cells
Catheter: A hollow tube that is inserted through the urethra to drain urine or deliver drugs for intravesical chemotherapy.
Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to kill cancer cells
Cystoscopy: Procedure in which a urologist places a cystoscope (a small, hollow viewing tube) through the urethra to look into the bladder
Immunotherapy: The use of materials made either by the body or in a laboratory to improve, target, or restore immune system function
Metastasis: The spread of cancer from where it began to another part of the body
Prognosis: Chance of recovery Radiation therapy: The use of high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells
Tumor: An abnormal growth of body tissue
TURBT(transurethral resection of bladder tumour): Procedure that removes the tumor with a small wire loop, a laser, or high-energy electricity
Urologic oncologist: A Urologist who specializes in treating cancers of the urinary tract