Renal cell cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in tubules of the kidney. The most common type occurs in the renal (kidney) tissue that filters the blood and produces the urine and is called renal cell cancer (or renal cell carcinoma). Another type of adult kidney tumor arises in the renal pelvis where the urine collects and is called transitional cell carcinoma.

What are the signs of kidney cancer?

  • Most of the patients have incidental findings on routine ultrasounds suggestive of renal mass
  • Rest may presnt with
  • Blood in the urine (hematuria)
  • Low back pain on one side (not caused by injury)
  • A mass (lump) on the side or lower back.
  • Fatigue (tiredness)
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Weight loss not caused by dieting.
  • Fever that is not caused by an infection and that doesn't go away(FUO)

  • What are the risk factors for renal cancer?

    Risk factors for renal cell cancer include the following:

  • Smoking.
  • Misusing certain pain medicines, including over-the-counter pain medicines, for a long time.
  • Being overweight.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Family history of renal cell cancer.
  • Having certain genetic conditions, such as von Hippel-Lindau disease or hereditary papillary renal cell carcinoma.

  • What are the ways to find whether one has a renal tumor?

    The following tests and procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient’s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.

  • Ultrasound exam : most common primary test to diagnose a renal mass.

  • Blood Test : KFT,LFT,Serum Calcium

  • Urinalysis : A test to check the color of urine and its contents, such as sugar, protein, red blood cells, and white blood cells.

  • Liver function test : A procedure in which a sample of blood is checked to measure the amounts of enzymes released into it by the liver. An abnormal amount of an enzyme can be a sign that cancer has spread to the liver. Certain conditions that are not cancer may also increase liver enzyme levels.
  • Intravenous pyelogram (IVP): A series of x-rays of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder to find out if cancer is present in these organs. A contrast dye is injected into a vein. As the contrast dye moves through the kidneys, ureters, and bladder, x-rays are taken to see if there are any blockages.

  • CT scan (CAT scan): modality of choice : The pictures are made by a computer linked to an x-ray machine. A dye may be injected into a vein or swallowed to help the organs or tissues show up more clearly. This procedure is also called computed tomography, computerized tomography, or computerized axial tomography.

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging): A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves, and a computer to make a series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body. This procedure is also called nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI).

  • Biopsy : The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. To do a biopsy for renal cell cancer, a thin needle is inserted into the tumor and a sample of tissue is withdrawn.

  • What are the Stages of Renal Cell Cancer

  • After renal cell cancer has been diagnosed, tests are done to find out if cancer cells have spread within the kidney or to other parts of the body.
  • Stage I

    In stage I, the tumor is 7 centimeters or smaller and is found only in the kidney.

    Stage II

    In stage II, the tumor is larger than 7 centimeters and is found only in the kidney.

    Stage III

    In stage III:

    • The tumor is any size and cancer is found only in the kidney and in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes; or
    • Cancer is found in the main blood vessels of the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may be found in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes.
    Stage IV

    In stage IV, cancer has spread:

    • Beyond the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney and may be found in the adrenal gland above the kidney with cancer, or in nearby lymph nodes; or
    • Cancer is found in the main blood vessels of the kidney or in the layer of fatty tissue around the kidney. Cancer may be found in 1 or more nearby lymph nodes.

    Surgical resection(radical or partial nephrectomy) is the accepted, often curative, therapy for stage I ,II, renal cell cancer. operation includes removal of the kidney, adrenal gland, perirenal fat, and Gerota fascia, with or without a regional lymph node dissection.

    In patients with bilateral stage I neoplasms (concurrent or subsequent), bilateral partial nephrectomy or unilateral partial nephrectomy with contralateral radical nephrectomy, when technically feasible, may be a preferred alternative to bilateral nephrectomy with dialysis or transplantation.

    Increasing evidence suggests that a partial nephrectomy is curative in selected cases. A pathologist should examine the gross specimen as well as the frozen section from the parenchymal margin of excision.

    Laparoscopic Nephrectomy provides patients with a safe and effective way to remove a diseased or cancerous kidney. Laparosopic nephrectomy is a minimally invasive technique, which provides patients with less discomfort and equivalent results when compared to the larger incision required with traditional open surgery.

    What is laparoscopic partial nephrectomy surgery?

    Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy is a minimally invasive technique to remove a portion of the kidney that is usually used as a treatment for primary renal tumors.

    Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy provides patients with a safe and effective way to remove a small renal tumor, while preserving the remainder of the kidney. This is a minimally invasive technique, which provides patients with less discomfort and equivalent results when compared to the traditional open surgery